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"Bearing in mind that more than 50% of current jobs will be automated in the near future with no guarantee that new jobs will be created, what efforts can the European Union make in order to ensure "The Right to Work", following Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is upheld?"

By Artur Chichorro (PT)

Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (EMPL)

1. The topic at a glance

The technological developments that profoundly impact the world in which we live grant us new unexplored possibilities as well as challenges. Self-driving cars, machines that cook complicated meals for us, algorithms that automatically respond to emails and even stores that are capable of selling products without any type of human interaction with the customer are all types of automation. All these technologies increase our productivity and improve our lives. Yet, many are concerned about the fact that their use will substitute work activities currently performed by humans. According to Article 23 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, everyone has the right to work. With automation, the basic viability of this proposition is questioned. How can we be sure that every human will be able to work knowing that automation threatens to replace such a significant percentage of the workforce? As a society, it is our job to decide and come up with policies and solutions about how we should integrate these technological developments in our industries. Are we finally being outcompeted? Knowing that the European Union is leading the global race towards automation, how will it adapt to this new chapter of the history of employment?

2. Facts

  • → 45-60% of all European workers could see themselves replaced by automation by 2030;
  • → Theoretically, about 50% of all jobs could be automated with already existing technology;
  • → If given adequate training, it is estimated that 96% of all workers at threat from technology could find similar or better work;
  • → Workers with a lower secondary degree education will be most affected by automation;
  • → For about 60% of occupations, at least 30% of the constituent activities could be automated;
  • → Unemployed people are twice as likely to suffer from psychological problems than employed people;
  • → While there are fewer new jobs created directly by technological progress, one additional technology job creates around five new, complementary jobs in the local non-tradable sector.

3. Key Actors and Institutions

*Check “OECD (March 2018): Putting faces to the jobs at risk of automation”

4. Key Conflicts or Key Challenges

The scale in which 21st century automation is impacting employment is regularly compared to the scale of shifts resulting from agriculture or manufacturing that we have seen in the past. In the past century, human labour has been constantly replaced through different innovations, often introduced through the means of technology. Automation has been an ongoing trend and the concerns of it replacing jobs go all the way back to the Roman Emperor Vespasian who refused to make use of a labour-saving machine in order to protect the workforce. In general, automation affects employment either negatively - by replacing workers - or positively - by increasing the demand for labour or by creating new jobs. When automobiles were introduced, even though horse related jobs were reduced, a lot of other jobs were created not only in the transportation sector, but also in other sectors with the introduction of drive thrus and motels, for example. In general, the long term impact that automobiles had was positive for employment since it increased productivity and generated more labour than what it displaced. With this in mind, one question is constantly asked: is the impact of 21stcentury automation indeed positive? To answer this question, it is important to note that Artificial Intelligence (AI)’s disruption of society is happening ten times faster and at 300 times the scale when compared to the 18th century Industrial Revolution. It is hard to measure if this is the time when we finally get outcompeted by our tools. Either way, it’s still up to us and to our policies to decide how we integrate these developments in our societies.

One argument in favour of this 21st century wave of automation and AI is that it actually makes our jobs more human. This results from the argument about how only some of the tasks of our jobs will actually be replaced by automation and that these will mostly be the repetitive and mundane tasks. Since creativity and sensing emotions are core to the human experience and difficult to automate, this time saved can be used for workers to develop their skills further and produce more meaningful work.

With simpler tasks being automated, the remaining tasks will require more social and emotional skills and more advanced cognitive capabilities. This might result in a decline in the number of low-skilled jobs with some reports claiming that 50% of low-skilled jobs will be automated. Other reports claim that not only low-skilled jobs are threatened by automation. Middle-skill jobs might initially require more training, but just like low-skilled jobs, after the skill is learned, it will eventually stop involving a lot of critical thinking. Examples of this are machine operators and office clerks. This makes them easier to automate and therefore, it is likely that middle-skill workers end up displaced. This raises many issues: job loss is an involuntary life event that deeply impacts the life and career of a worker. It might result in family disruption, social withdrawal and more far-reaching psychological damage. Not only would the displaced individual be severely affected, with the decline of low-skilled and middle-skilled jobs, but automation might also contribute to increasing inequality. After all, who owns the robots?

There are dozens of studies published online about the impact of automation on employment. Many advocate that automation will be destructive of our jobs, and that millions of people might go unemployed because of it. Others advocate that our tasks will simply change within many of our current jobs. Accordingly, the description of the impacts of automation differs between studies by different authorities, complicating the debate in the area significantly.

It is hard to predict if we are indeed facing an old issue, or if automation has finally reinvented itself to the point in which the shift is too major to bear. Is AI going to take most of our jobs or will it only make them change? Will new jobs be created now that our tools are so significantly different? Will low and middle-skilled work disappear? Will big corporations increase in size threatening humanity’s common goal to achieve equality? Will the 23rd article of the Universal Human Rights Declaration be internationally upheld?

5. What has been done so far?

The European Pillar of Social Rights is focused on granting equal opportunities and access to the labour market, fair working conditions and social inclusion for all Europeans. It is through it that the EU safeguards the rights regarding labour of its citizens.

One major focus of the EU is to close the skills gap. This will allow low and middle-skilled workers to seek training and develop new skills that will hopefully bring them enough expertise to stay in the labour market. Considering that it is predicted that automation will increase and create many high-skilled jobs, it is important to widen the skillsets of europeans so they can accurately adapt and respond to automation. More than this, it is also likely that with the rise of automation, humans will have to perform multiple jobs throughout their careers, thus requiring a wider set of skills. This process has already been started as it is proven that more and more people tend to switch jobs on a more frequent occasion than before globalisation. To close the skills gap, the EU promotes the New Skills Agenda for Europe which consists of 10 different actions to make the right training available to EU citizens. More than this agenda, the EU also makes country specific recommendations to guide Member States into designing their own concrete policies. These policies are then put into practice thanks to EU Funding from funds such as the European Social Fund, the EU programme for Employment and Social Innovation or even Erasmus+. are then put into practice thanks to EU Funding from funds such as the European Social Fund, the EU programme for Employment and Social Innovation or even Erasmus+. Just like the EU, the OECD also promotes national skills strategies to promote economic prosperity and social cohesion.

The EU’s European Employment Strategy (EES) aims to create more and better jobs throughout the EU. It is based on employability, entrepreneurship, adaptability and equal opportunities. Each year the Member States draw National Action Plans on Employment and are obliged to provide the European Commission reports about their implementation. The EES is in itself a part of European 2020 growth strategy which sets goals and targets for 2020 and for the Member States to aim towards.

The EURES is the EU’s jobs mobility portal. It is formed by public employment services and aims at facilitating the free movement of workers within the European Economic Area. This allows European citizens to easily apply their skills where they are most required within the union, facilitating social mobility.

6. Videos & Additional Links

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"In an increasingly technology dependent world, less than 30% of the world’s researchers working in science and technology are women, and an even smaller percentage of women reach senior positions across all industries. What should be done in order to promote female representation in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and to decrease the gender gap amongst senior positions?"

By Martyna Szumniak (SE)

Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) I

1. The topic at a glance

In 2019, women are still greatly underrepresented in the job market. Science-focused jobs and senior positions across all industries are still dominated by men, with only 17% of senior positions in the EU being filled by women.

Additionally, there is a big gap in fields related to science, technology, math and engineering. While women dominate all levels of tertiary education (apart from doctoral level studies) and graduate at a higher rate (57.6%) than men, there are twice as many male graduates in science, mathematics, computing, engineering, manufacturing and construction, than female graduates.

As the world is increasingly becoming more digitised, there is a high demand for high-quality leadership, and gender gaps amongst leadership positions in STEM fields are the main villains in preventing the optimisation of potential in the job market.

2. Facts

  • → The European Commission estimates that by 2020 over 900,000 additional employees will be needed in the IT sector. In the entire STEM sector, seven million new jobs are predicted by 2025;
  • → Women account for a little over one quarter of board members of publicly listed companies in the EU (27%), and accounted for less than a fifth of senior executives (17%) in 2018;
  • → Closing the gender gap in STEM is predicted to contribute to an increase in EU GDP per capita by 2.2 to 3.0% in 2050. This means an improvement in GDP by €610 - €820 billion in 2050;
  • → At EU level, 17% of senior executives are women, which is 5% more compared with five years ago (12% in 2013);
  • → Globally, 72% of scientific researchers are men. Only one in five countries achieve what is called“gender parity,” meaning that women make up 45%-55% of researchers;
  • → While on average, in the EU, 41% of scientists and engineers are women, the numbers vary from 25% to 57% for each specific country.

3. Key Actors

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and local organisations - NGOs and local organisations are often big actors in spreading awareness amongst societies and citizens, reaching more personal levels and in some cases stronger impact due to their bottom-up approach. Examples of such organisations are European Women’s lobby and Karat.

The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and BUSINESSEUROPE - two umbrella organisations which together represent 20 million companies and 82 trade organisations in Europe.

Individual companies and employers - The actions, frameworks and decisions of individual businesses largely influence the direction of the job market. As company culture and reputation are important factors when choosing a workplace, big players in specific industries, such as STEM, often have a big influence on how attractive the industry is for people of specific genders.

4. Key Institutions

Local governments - In many countries, social policies and frameworks dictate the opportunities women have to build and maintain a career and in what areas they are more likely to succeed. For example, due to ambitious social and welfare policies, nordic countries lead in many areas within gender equality.

Educational institutions - Institutions such as universities and schools play a big role as the STEM gap often starts at a higher-education level where women are far less represented in STEM subjects.

European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) - EIGE is an autonomous body of the European Union. It was established to strengthen the promotion of gender equality across the Union. This includes gender mainstreaming in all EU policies and the resulting national policies, and the fight against discrimination based on sex, as well as to raise EU citizens’ awareness of gender equality.

The European Commission - The European Commission is the executive arm of the EU, which is responsible for all legislative proposals, upholding existing treaties and day-to-day business of the Union. It decides on the political and strategic direction of the EU.

Key Conflicts or Key Challenges

Gender stereotypes - while the gender gap in science is constantly decreasing, gender stereotypes and stereotypes surrounding “male” vs “female” jobs and careers are still hindering women from entering male-dominated industries. This is also applicable to education, where a high representation of men within subjects such as engineering, maths and sciences, sometimes discourages women from applying to or attending courses due to the small percentage of female peers.

Social and legal frameworks - frameworks regarding areas such as parental leave, sick leave and flexible working often hinder women from reaching certain positions or having certain jobs, due to their family commitments.

Social and biological pressures - by nature, many women become pregnant in their 20s-30s, meaning that they need time off from work or university. Due to a lack of supporting structures, they are often unable to pursue careers at the same time as stereotypes and expectations often influence the opportunities presented to them. For example, younger women are less likely to be hired, as managers fear they will possibly need maternity leave.

The “right way” to go about this issue - while some believe that as society evolves, gender gaps will naturally close in the job market, others believe that the best way to combat the issue is by implementing quotas on various levels of businesses and education, outlining specific percentages of how many women need to fill certain positions and industries.

6. What has been done so far?

In the EU, there is a variety of frameworks and initiatives in place to encourage gender equality and increase female participation in the labour market. The Strategic Engagement for Gender Equality is a framework for the European Commission's future work towards full gender equality, focusing on five priority areas, including female representation in the labour market and reducing the gender pay gap. The maternity leave framework written in the 1992 Pregnant workers directive is to be maintained as EU institutions are set to approve a new legislation on work-life balance and minimum paternity leave in 2019. While the “She Figures 2018" statistics outline progress made towards gender equality in research and innovation in the European Union, there is a lack of strict frameworks for gender representation in various areas of the labour market. In 2012, the European Commission proposed legislation to increase the number of women on corporate boards by 40% in publicly listed companies, and has proposed a variety of initiatives, however there is a lack of specific legislation and frameworks in place.

7. Further Links

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"With the recognition of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) as a major current public health threat, possibly leading to devastating social and economic consequences, what measures should the EU take in order to prevent the spread of AMR?"

By João Costa (PT)

Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI II)

1. The topic at a glance

The introduction of Penicillin, in the first half of the 20th century, was the first step into the “golden era” of antimicrobials, more specifically, antibiotics. Such medicines have saved millions of lives from once-lethal infections. However, the negative impacts of such a medical phenomenon have finally shown themselves. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobials and poor infection control practices have led to a rising number of microorganisms resistant to treatments.

Microorganisms developed resistance through mutations or acquisition of new genetic information. They adapted to the new environment and to many of our previously effective treatments. Even instances of infections resistant to multidrug therapies and last resort treatments have significantly increased within the EU.

The World Health Organization (WHO), now considers AMR a major threat to human and animal health worldwide. “This serious threat is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country." The approach to this issue has been commonly linked to the ‘One Health’ concept, which recognises the link between humans, livestock and environment regarding the evolution of AMR.

2. Facts

  • → It has been estimated that AMR might cause more deaths than cancer by 2050, 10 million per year worldwide;
  • → The World Bank has warned that, by 2050, drug-resistant infections could cause global economic damage on a par with the 2008 financial crisis;
  • → Since 1962, only two new classes of antibiotics have reached the market;
  • → Between 2010 and 2030, global consumption of antimicrobials in the livestock sector is projected to increase by about 67%;
  • → Globally, it is estimated that only half of antibiotics are used correctly;
  • → Only 25% of countries worldwide have implemented a national policy to tackle AMR;
  • → Globally, two billion people cannot access the medicine they require, with millions in low- and middle-income countries dying each year from diseases because the vaccines, medicines and diagnostic tests that they need are either unavailable or unaffordable.

3. Key Actors

The World Health Organization (WHO): The institution, with 194 Member States, works worldwide promoting public health, with the goal of ensuring universal health coverage. Its core global functions include monitoring and enforcing international norms and standards, assuming an essential role in the achievement of common health goals.

The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO): A specialised agency which leads global efforts to defeat hunger. It is also responsible for ensuring food security for all, since it plays a connector role between governments, producers and traders. This role enables it to have a great impact on AMR, by leading different stakeholders to adopt measures to minimize the use of antimicrobials.

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE): The intergovernmental organisation responsible for animal health worldwide. With 182 Member countries, the OIE has the ability to set the standards regarding animal health and zoonotic diseases. With the support of WHO and FAO, as the tripartite coalition, it has taken the lead in the fight against AMR.

Industry: The private sector can be a powerful ally in the One Health approach to AMR.It has the means to invest in the development of promising alternatives to antimicrobials and to reduced availability issues. Furthermore, the threat of losing productivity on the food sector and animal husbandry motivates private investors to join the fight.

3. Key Institutions

Member States: ‘Protection and improvement of human health’ are considered a supporting competence, which means EU institutions may only support and encourage measures, while Member States are completely responsible for their priorities in the field.

European Parliament and the Council: The EU bodies may also adopt incentive measures, since AMR is considered a major cross-border health scourge . Addressing the matter requires effective and consistent measures on the EU level and on each Member State’s health programme, establishing the EU as a best practice region.

5. Key Challenges

Accessibilty

Global Public Health is under threat, the rise of AMR challenges the core of modern medicine leading to several worldwide stakeholders attempting to constrain its development. The view that the total consumption of antimicrobials is the critical factor in the increasing resistance to antimicrobials is supported by much of the evidence we have, however this is not a simple correlation. The paradox inherent to AMR is that the lack of access to antimicrobials in some areas of the globe, poor-adherence and sub-standard medicines also contribute to the development of resistance.

Research

The increase of resistant strains has not been matched by the discovery of new therapeuticals. The discovery, development, manufacture and marketing of new antimicrobials has significantly slowed down in the past 20 years. The lack of a sustainable and predictable economy forced the Pharmaceutical Industry to stepback from antimicrobials. Due to health professionals taking a more responsible approach and prescribing fewer antibiotics, and certain bacteria strains developing resistance, the profit companies earn making antimicrobials has staggered. While the antimicrobials sector seems less appealing, the investment on chronic diseases’ treatments appears as safer options. The current economic model prevents the Industry from increasing its efforts on tackling AMR.

Health Care Professionals

From the health care workers to patients, everyone has a key role in the development of resistance. Inadequate prescribing can be a consequence of medical staff lacking up-to-date information, having reduced access to effective diagnostic tools to identify the type of infection, yield to patient pressure to prescribe antibiotics, or benefit financially from supplying the medicines. Furthermore, in most countries, antimicrobials can even be bought without prescription, and the poor quality of such medicines worsens the effect it may have on pathogens.

Industry

Regarding the Industry related to animal husbandry, a common practice is feeding the animals with antimicrobials. The goals are to preserve the livestock health and to promote its growth. In comparison, extensive and smallholder livestock production use fewer antimicrobials than industrial companies. The use of antimicrobials as growth promoters leads to an increase in profit, however it enhances the emergence and spread of AMR, since most of the antimicrobials used end up on the environment unmetabolized.

6. What has been done so far?

Political Approach

In June 2017, the European Commission strengthened its position on the matter, by adopting the EU One Health Action Plan against AMR. The plan is built on three main pillars: making the EU a best practice region; boosting research, development and innovation and shaping the global agenda. It stands as a symbol of political cooperation and contains concrete interdependent actions, it’s success relies on a combined effort from all the Member States and EU Institutions.

Since AMR was considered a global threat, the WHO has made a wide variety of efforts to lead the fight against it. The most recent is the Global Action Plan, endorsed in May 2015. It is considered a step towards the harmonisation of an immediate action on a global scale. The need for a ‘One Health approach’ is emphasized on the plan, urging the coordination among sectors such as human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, finance, environment, and well informed consumers. The tripartite: WHO, FAO and OIE is a collaboration that serves as a role model for the multi sectoral approach needed.

Research & Development

The Davos Declaration, signed by more than 100 companies, sets the motto for an effort of the Private sector. The AMR Industry Alliance brings together biotech, diagnostics, generics and research-based pharmaceutical companies. The aim is to guide the life-science industry in: investing in Research and Development (R&D) to meet public health needs; improving access to high-quality antibiotics; working to reduce the development of antimicrobial resistance and supporting measures to reduce environmental impact from the production of antibiotics. The Alliance is also focused on the need of creating a sustainable and predictable market.

A public-private partnership, called The Innovative Medicines Initiative, was created in 2007 between the European Commission, and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) with the goal of improving the competitive situation of the European Union in the field of pharmaceutical research. Its programme New Drugs 4 Bad Bugs is an unprecedented partnership, with a €700 million budget. The project addresses AMR on covering basic science and early stage drug development, clinical trials, and economics.

7. Additional Links

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Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

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Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

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Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE)

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Duis sed nibh nibh. Vivamus sit amet iaculis enim, eu accumsan felis. Nulla metus mi, aliquam ultricies purus eget, rhoncus tincidunt erat. Nulla laoreet, nulla sit amet faucibus porta, nibh elit vestibulum libero, at gravida arcu mauris eu ligula.

Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Cras eu leo sit amet urna scelerisque condimentum vitae eget dui. Sed accumsan nibh ac mattis bibendum. Phasellus pharetra, augue et pellentesque ornare, libero erat tincidunt diam, vel viverra risus elit nec enim.

Phasellus porttitor, ante a ornare condimentum, nisl nunc feugiat metus, laoreet aliquam ligula mi quis dolor. Nullam dictum porta suscipit. Mauris mi nisi, porta vitae turpis quis, porttitor sagittis eros. Ut porta ac orci sit amet auctor. Proin pharetra vehicula nunc vel pulvinar. Sed malesuada ornare sagittis. Phasellus hendrerit tellus vitae odio consequat, id imperdiet est volutpat. Duis quis lectus sit amet erat lobortis accumsan at non odio. Cras feugiat vehicula pulvinar. Integer commodo augue odio. Integer pellentesque odio mollis, ornare dui et, tempor purus. Integer sed volutpat nunc. Nullam ac magna at metus aliquet tincidunt. Morbi a ipsum velit. Vivamus varius elit at vestibulum suscipit.

Nulla elementum tincidunt nulla vitae consectetur. Praesent eros nunc, luctus vitae sagittis vitae, ornare non ex. Nunc dignissim, velit et scelerisque sollicitudin, nunc mauris scelerisque magna.

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